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Black Ead Peas

The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean[2] is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. It is a subspecies of the cowpea, an Old World plant domesticated in Africa, and is sometimes simply called a cowpea.

Black Ead Peas

The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot. The American South has countless varieties, many of them heirloom, that vary in size from the small lady peas to very large ones. The color of the eye may be black, brown, red, pink, or green. All the peas are green when freshly shelled and brown or buff when dried. A popular variation[3][4] of the black-eyed pea is the purple hull pea or mud-in-your-eye pea; it is usually green with a prominent purple or pink spot. The currently accepted botanical name for the black-eyed pea is Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata,[5] although previously it was classified in the genus Phaseolus. Vigna unguiculata subsp. dekindtiana is the wild relative and Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis is the related asparagus bean. Other beans of somewhat similar appearance, such as the frijol ojo de cabra (goat's-eye bean) of northern Mexico, are sometimes incorrectly called black-eyed peas, and vice versa.

The Black eyed pea originates from West Africa and has been cultivated in China and India since prehistoric times.[6] It was grown[7] in Virginia since the 17th century by African slaves[8] who were brought to America along with the indigenous plants from their homelands.[9] The crop would also eventually [10] prove popular in Texas. The planting of crops of black-eyed peas was promoted by George Washington Carver because, as a legume, it adds nitrogen to the soil and has high nutritional value. Throughout the South, the black-eyed pea is still a widely used ingredient today[11] in soul food and cuisines of the Southern United States.[12] The black eye pea is cultivated throughout the world.[1]

This heat-loving crop should be sown after all danger of frost has passed and the soil is warm. Seeds sown too early will rot before germination. Black-eyed peas are extremely drought tolerant, so excessive watering should be avoided.[13]

In the Southern United States, eating black-eyed peas or Hoppin' John (a traditional soul food) on New Year's Day is thought to bring prosperity in the new year.[14] The peas are typically cooked with a pork product for flavoring (such as bacon, fatback, ham bones, or hog jowls) and diced onion, and served with a hot chili sauce or a pepper-flavored vinegar. The traditional meal also includes cabbage, collard, turnip, or mustard greens, and ham. The peas, since they swell when cooked, symbolize prosperity; the greens symbolize money; the pork, because pigs root forward when foraging, represents positive motion.[15] Cornbread, which represents gold, also often accompanies this meal.[16]

Several legends exist as to the origin of this custom. Two popular explanations for the South's association with peas and good luck date back to the American Civil War. The first is associated with General William T. Sherman's march of the Union Army to the sea, during which they pillaged the Confederates' food supplies. Stories say peas and salted pork were said to have been left untouched, because of the belief that they were animal food unfit for human consumption. Southerners considered themselves lucky to be left with some supplies to help them survive the winter, and black-eyed peas evolved into a representation of good luck. One challenge to this legend is that General Sherman brought backup supplies with him including three days of animal feed[17] and would have been unlikely to have left even animal feed untouched. In addition, the dates of the first average frost for Atlanta and Savannah, respectively, are November 13 and November 28.[18] As Sherman's march was from November 15 to December 21, 1864, it is improbable, although possible, that the Union Army would have come across standing fields of black-eyed peas as relayed in most versions of the legend. In another Southern tradition, black-eyed peas were a symbol of emancipation for African-Americans who had previously been enslaved, and who after the Civil War were officially freed on New Years Day.[19][20]

Black-eyed peas contain calcium (41 mg), folate (356 μg), protein (13.22 g), fiber (11.1 g) and vitamin A (26 IU), among other nutrients, with less than 840 kilojoules (200 kilocalories) of food energy in a 171-gram (6 oz) serving.[22]

In Egypt, black-eyed peas called lobia,[23] when cooked with onions, garlic, meat, and tomato juice and served with Egyptian rice with some pastina called shaerya mixed in, make the most famous rice dish in Egypt.

In Nigeria and Ghana within West Africa and the Caribbean, a traditional dish called akara or koose comprises mashed black-eyed peas with added salt, onions and/or peppers. The mixture is then fried. In Nigeria a pudding called 'moin-moin' is made from ground and mixed peas with seasoning as well as some plant proteins before it is steamed. This is served with various carbohydrate-rich foods such as pap, rice or garri.[24]

In Indonesia, black-eyed peas are called kacang tunggak or kacang tolo in the local language. They are commonly used in curry dishes such as sambal goreng, a hot and spicy red curry dish, sayur brongkos, or sayur lodeh.

The bean is commonly used across India. In North India, black-eyed peas are called lobia or rongi and cooked like daal, served with boiled rice.[25] In Maharashtra, they are called chawli and made into a curry called chawli amti[26] or chawli usal. In Karnataka they are called alsande kalu and used in the preparation of huli, a popular type of curry.[27] In South Kanara district they are called as lathanay dha beeja and are cooked in spiced coconut paste to make a saucy curry or a dry coconut curry. In Tamil Nadu, they are called karamani or thattapayaru and used in various recipes, including being boiled and made into a salad-like sundal (often during the Ganesh Chaturthi and Navratri festivals).[28] In Andhra Pradesh they are known by the name alasandalu and are used for variety of recipes, most popularly for Vada. In Kerala, they are a part of the Sadhya dish, Olan.

In Cyprus (φρέσκο λουβί (fresko luvi)), Greece (μαυρομάτικα) and Turkey (börülce salatası), blanched black-eyed peas are eaten as salad with a dressing of olive oil, salt, lemon juice, onions and garlic.[29]

In Brazil's northeastern state of Bahia, especially in the city of Salvador, black-eyed peas (named "feijão fradinho" there) are used in a traditional street food of West African cuisine origin called acarajé. The beans are peeled and mashed, and the resulting paste is made into balls and deep fried in dendê. Acarajé is typically served split in half and stuffed with vatapá, caruru, diced green and red tomatoes, fried sun-dried shrimp and homemade hot sauce.

In Guyana, South America, and Trinidad and Tobago, it is one of the most popular type of beans cooked with rice, the main one being red kidney beans, also referred to as red beans. It is also cooked as a snack or appetizer on its own. On New Year's Eve (referred to as Old Year's Night in Guyana and Suriname), families cook a traditional dish called cook-up rice. The dish comprises rice, black-eyed peas, and other peas and a variety of meats cooked in coconut milk and seasonings. According to tradition, cook-up rice should be the first thing consumed in the New Year for good luck. Cook-up rice is also made as an everyday dish.

Black-eyed peas can assist with further developing absorption for certain individuals because of their fiber content, which can assist with advancing customary solid discharges.They also contain prebiotic fiber, which takes care of the useful microscopic organisms in the intestinal system.[31]

Black-eyed peas contain a large measure of beta carotene, which the body converts to Vitamin A. In a single serving, it meets a fourth of a typical adults daily Vitamin A requirement. Vitamin A is important for healthy eyes and skin.

This legume is extremely drought tolerant and loves the heat. Because of this, the black-eyed pea grows best in the southern states and is widely used in southern cuisine. George Washington Carer was a major advocate of the black-eyed pea because it naturally replenishes.

Black Eyed Peas (AKA cowpea) This legume is extremely drought tolerant and loves the heat. Because of this, the black-eyed pea grows best in the southern states and is widely used in southern cuisine. George Washington Carer was a major advocate of the black-eyed pea because it naturally replenishes the soil with nitrogen and has great nutritional value.

Once germinated, peas will climb a fence or trellis to anywhere between 2 and 8 feet tall, depending on the variety. Prepare supports ahead of time, taking into consideration the mature height of the pea variety (which should be listed on the seed packet). Water sparsely unless the plants are wilting. If the weather is dry, water them periodically. Do not let plants dry out, or no pods will be produced. Keep the pea bed well weeded, but be careful using weeding tools such as hoes because peas are shallow rooted.

Little Marvel peas are a dependable variety introduced in 1908, known for fine quality and excellent yields. At the time it was called American Wonder, but its roots (forgive the pun) were purely British. Little Marvel is a cross between two British varieties, Daisy and William Hurst. It exceeded even the greatest expectations for this cultivar, because Little Marvel plants were only 15-20 inches tall, usually requiring no trellising, but these little plants were prolific producers which produced over a very long season. Since its introduction it has continually been one of the most popular shelling peas available. 041b061a72


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